Modeling the Spatial Distribution of Coliforms in Grand Traverse Bay
Green, A.W. Jr.
Grand Traverse Bay ; Coliforms ; Water Quality ; Boardman River ; Fruit Processing Waste ; Michigan Sea Grant ; Coliform bacteria ; mathematical modeling ; Cedar Lake
A steady state mathematical model for the total coliform distribution in Grand Traverse Bay has been developed using continuity equations and experimental data describing die-away kinetics. Advective and dispersive transport phenomena were approximated using square-law assumptions and field dye tracer techniques. The predictive capability of the model was verified by comparing model calculations with observations during quasi-steady periods in 1963, 1964 and 1971. The utility of the model was demonstrated with two examples showing coliform distributions resulting from alternate waste disposal schemes. (Key words: Coliform bacterima;thematical modeling;Grand Traverse Bay).
FIG. 1. Traverse City area and location of municipal water intake pipe.;FIG 2 Weekly average total coliform at water intake pipe between 1956 and 1965.; FIG. 3. Average total coliform (cells/lOOml) at Traverse City beaches, 13-17 August 1964.; FIG. 4. Forty-eight segment model for the west arm of Grand Traverse Bay.; FIG. 6. Comparison of computed profiles with observed total coliform, 1964.;FIG. 7. Comparison of computed profiles with observed total coliform, 1971.; FIG. 8. Calculated distribution of total coliform with 90% treatment of 1964 fruit processing wastes and introduction of two new plants at Cedar Lake.;FIG. 9. Calculated distribution of total coliform from 1964 loadings with all discharge through 1500 ft (456 m) outfall pipe.